Science Content Standards.
Focus on Physical Science
- Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. As a basis for understanding this concept:
- Students know a force has both direction and magnitude.
- Students know when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces.
- Students know when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change.
- Students know how to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction.
- Students know that when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction).
- Students know the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to achieve the same rate of change in motion.
- Students know the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system.
Investigation and Experimentation
- Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
- Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.
- Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data.
- Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.
- Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this principle in interpreting graphs constructed from data.
- Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables.
- Apply simple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression, given the two remaining terms (including speed = distance/time, density = mass/volume, force = pressure × area, volume = area × height).
- Distinguish between linear and nonlinear relationships on a graph of data.
Grades Nine Through Twelve - Physics
Science Content Standards.
Standards that all students are expected to achieve in the course of their studies are unmarked.
Standards that all students should have the opportunity to learn are marked with an asterisk (*).
Motion and Forces
- Newton 's laws predict the motion of most objects. As a basis for understanding this concept:
- Students know how to solve problems that involve constant speed and average speed.
- Students know that when forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest ( Newton's first law).
- Students know how to apply the law F=ma to solve one-dimensional motion problems that involve constant forces ( Newton's second law).
- Students know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction ( Newton's third law).
- Students know the relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an object at the surface of Earth.
- Students know applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth's gravitational force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).
- Students know circular motion requires the application of a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.
- * Students know Newton's laws are not exact but provide very good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.
- * Students know how to solve two-dimensional trajectory problems.
- * Students know how to resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components and calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components.
- * Students know how to solve two-dimensional problems involving balanced forces (statics).
- * Students know how to solve problems in circular motion by using the formula for centripetal acceleration in the following form: a=v2/r.
- * Students know how to solve problems involving the forces between two electric charges at a distance (Coulomb's law) or the forces between two masses at a distance (universal gravitation).
Investigation & Experimentation - Grades 9 to 12
Science Content Standards.
- Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other four strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
- Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data.
- Identify and communicate sources of unavoidable experimental error.
- Identify possible reasons for inconsistent results, such as sources of error oruncontrolled conditions.
- Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.
- Solve scientific problems by using quadratic equations and simple trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions.
- Distinguish between hypothesis and theory as scientific terms.
- Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.
- Read and interpret topographic and geologic maps.
- Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time,and succession of species in an ecosystem).
- Recognize the issues of statistical variability and the need for controlled tests.
- Recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence.
- Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining and applying concepts from more than one area of science.
- Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings. Examples of issues include irradiation of food, cloning of animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer, choice of energy sources, and land and water use decisions in California.
- Know that when an observation does not agree with an accepted scientific theory,the observation is sometimes mistaken or fraudulent (e.g., the Piltdown Man fossil or unidentified flying objects) and that the theory is sometimes wrong (e.g., the Ptolemaic model of the movement of the Sun, Moon, and planets).
Grades Eight Through Twelve - Mathematics Content Standards.
The geometry skills and concepts developed in this discipline are useful to all students. Aside from learning these skills and concepts, students will develop their ability to construct formal, logical arguments and proofs in geometric settings and problems.
1.0 Students demonstrate understanding by identifying and giving examples of undefined terms, axioms, theorems, and inductive and deductive reasoning.
2.0 Students write geometric proofs, including proofs by contradiction.
3.0 Students construct and judge the validity of a logical argument and give counterexamples to disprove a statement.
4.0 Students prove basic theorems involving congruence and similarity.
5.0 Students prove that triangles are congruent or similar, and they are able to use the concept of corresponding parts of congruent triangles.
6.0 Students know and are able to use the triangle inequality theorem.
7.0 Students prove and use theorems involving the properties of parallel lines cut by a transversal, the properties of quadrilaterals, and the properties of circles.
8.0 Students know, derive, and solve problems involving the perimeter, circumference, area, volume, lateral area, and surface area of common geometric figures.
9.0 Students compute the volumes and surface areas of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and spheres; and students commit to memory the formulas for prisms, pyramids, and cylinders.
10.0 Students compute areas of polygons, including rectangles, scalene triangles, equilateral triangles, rhombi, parallelograms, and trapezoids.
11.0 Students determine how changes in dimensions affect the perimeter, area, and volume of common geometric figures and solids.
12.0 Students find and use measures of sides and of interior and exterior angles of triangles and polygons to classify figures and solve problems.
13.0 Students prove relationships between angles in polygons by using properties of complementary, supplementary, vertical, and exterior angles.
14.0 Students prove the Pythagorean theorem.
15.0 Students use the Pythagorean theorem to determine distance and find missing lengths of sides of right triangles.
16.0 Students perform basic constructions with a straightedge and compass, such as angle bisectors, perpendicular bisectors, and the line parallel to a given line through a point off the line.
17.0 Students prove theorems by using coordinate geometry, including the midpoint of a line segment, the distance formula, and various forms of equations of lines and circles.
18.0 Students know the definitions of the basic trigonometric functions defined by the angles of a right triangle. They also know and are able to use elementary relationships between them. For example, tan( x ) = sin( x )/cos( x ), (sin( x )) 2 + (cos( x )) 2 = 1.
19.0 Students use trigonometric functions to solve for an unknown length of a side of a right triangle, given an angle and a length of a side.
20.0 Students know and are able to use angle and side relationships in problems with special right triangles, such as 30°, 60°, and 90° triangles and 45°, 45°, and 90° triangles.
21.0 Students prove and solve problems regarding relationships among chords, secants, tangents, inscribed angles, and inscribed and circumscribed polygons of circles.
22.0 Students know the effect of rigid motions on figures in the coordinate plane and space, including rotations, translations, and reflections.
Seventh Grade Mathematics
Measurement and Geometry
1.0 Students choose appropriate units of measure and use ratios to convert within and between measurement systems to solve problems:
1.1 Compare weights, capacities, geometric measures, times, and temperatures within and between measurement systems (e.g., miles per hour and feet per second, cubic inches to cubic centimeters).
1.2 Construct and read drawings and models made to scale.
1.3 Use measures expressed as rates (e.g., speed, density) and measures expressed as products (e.g., person-days) to solve problems; check the units of the solutions; and use dimensional analysis to check the reasonableness of the answer.
2.0 Students compute the perimeter, area, and volume of common geometric objects and use the results to find measures of less common objects. They know how perimeter, area, and volume are affected by changes of scale:
2.1 Use formulas routinely for finding the perimeter and area of basic two-dimensional figures and the surface area and volume of basic three-dimensional figures, including rectangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, squares, triangles, circles, prisms, and cylinders.
2.2 Estimate and compute the area of more complex or irregular two-and three-dimensional figures by breaking the figures down into more basic geometric objects.
2.3 Compute the length of the perimeter, the surface area of the faces, and the volume of a three-dimensional object built from rectangular solids. Understand that when the lengths of all dimensions are multiplied by a scale factor, the surface area is multiplied by the square of the scale factor and the volume is multiplied by the cube of the scale factor.
2.4 Relate the changes in measurement with a change of scale to the units used (e.g., square inches, cubic feet) and to conversions between units (1 square foot = 144 square inches or [1 ft 2 ] = [144 in 2 ], 1 cubic inch is approximately 16.38 cubic centimeters or [1 in 3 ] = [16.38 cm 3 ]).
3.0 Students know the Pythagorean theorem and deepen their understanding of plane and solid geometric shapes by constructing figures that meet given conditions and by identifying attributes of figures:
3.1 Identify and construct basic elements of geometric figures (e.g., altitudes, mid-points, diagonals, angle bisectors, and perpendicular bisectors; central angles, radii, diameters, and chords of circles) by using a compass and straightedge.
3.2 Understand and use coordinate graphs to plot simple figures, determine lengths and areas related to them, and determine their image under translations and reflections.
3.3 Know and understand the Pythagorean theorem and its converse and use it to find the length of the missing side of a right triangle and the lengths of other line segments and, in some situations, empirically verify the Pythagorean theorem by direct measurement.
3.4 Demonstrate an understanding of conditions that indicate two geometrical figures are congruent and what congruence means about the relationships between the sides and angles of the two figures.
3.5 Construct two-dimensional patterns for three-dimensional models, such as cylinders, prisms, and cones.
3.6 Identify elements of three-dimensional geometric objects (e.g., diagonals of rectangular solids) and describe how two or more objects are related in space (e.g., skew lines, the possible ways three planes might intersect).
Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
1.0 Students collect, organize, and represent data sets that have one or more variables and identify relationships among variables within a data set by hand and through the use of an electronic spreadsheet software program:
1.1 Know various forms of display for data sets, including a stem-and-leaf plot or box-and-whisker plot; use the forms to display a single set of data or to compare two sets of data.
1.2 Represent two numerical variables on a scatterplot and informally describe how the data points are distributed and any apparent relationship that exists between the two variables (e.g., between time spent on homework and grade level).
1.3 Understand the meaning of, and be able to compute, the minimum, the lower quartile, the median, the upper quartile, and the maximum of a data set.
1.0 Students make decisions about how to approach problems:
1.1 Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, identifying missing information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing patterns.
1.2 Formulate and justify mathematical conjectures based on a general description of the mathematical question or problem posed.
1.3 Determine when and how to break a problem into simpler parts.
2.0 Students use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions:
2.1 Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results.
2.2 Apply strategies and results from simpler problems to more complex problems.
2.3 Estimate unknown quantities graphically and solve for them by using logical reasoning and arithmetic and algebraic techniques.
2.4 Make and test conjectures by using both inductive and deductive reasoning.
2.5 Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, and models, to explain mathematical reasoning.
2.6 Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with evidence in both verbal and symbolic work.
2.7 Indicate the relative advantages of exact and approximate solutions to problems and give answers to a specified degree of accuracy.
2.8 Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results from the context of the problem.
3.0 Students determine a solution is complete and move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other situations:
3.1 Evaluate the reasonableness of the solution in the context of the original situation.
3.2 Note the method of deriving the solution and demonstrate a conceptual understanding of the derivation by solving similar problems.
3.3 Develop generalizations of the results obtained and the strategies used and apply them to new problem situations.